Table of Contents

In this example, we will analyze a simple power supply.

The power supply consists of a “lump” power transformer with fairly loose coupling for short circuit protection, a full wave bridge rectifier, and a filter capacitor. The desired output is about 50 volts at .5 amps (100 Ohm load), with less than 1 volt of ripple. The power supply should be able to handle a short with no damage, with no fuse.

An inexperienced engineer has chosen a transformer with primary inductance of 1 Henry, secondary inductance of .1 Henry, a turns ratio of 3.16:1. The stock transformer has a coefficient of coupling of .9. He has also chosen 1N4004 diodes, and a 5000 uf filter capacitor.

The first goal of simulation is to validate the design. Then, make adjustments to the design to meet the specs.

To validate the design, the following measurements need to be made, not necessarily in this order.

- DC output voltage, loaded (100 Ohm) and unloaded.
- Ripple voltage.
- Current in diodes: waveform, average, steady state peak, power-on surge, AC.
- Current in filter cap: as above
- Input current: as above
- Input power, VAR, and power factor: as above
- Above currents and power for load = nominal (100 Ohm), unloaded, and shorted (.01 Ohm)
- Diode voltages, PIV, etc.
- Transformer voltages
- Impact of high line (132 volts) and low line (108 volts)

This example will show how to do some of these. The rest are left as an exercise. You can make all of these measurements with gnucap.

First, let's make subcircuits for the transformer and diode bridge:

.subckt transformer (p1 p2 s1 s2) L1 (p1 p2) 1 L2 (s1 s2) .1 K1 (L1 L2) .9 .ends .subckt bridge (in1 in2 minus plus) .model 1n4004 d is=1n D1 (in1 plus) 1n4004 D2 (in2 plus) 1n4004 D3 (minus in1) 1n4004 D4 (minus in2) 1n4004 .ends

Save it in the file “models”.

Now, let's run it interactively.. Type in the circuit…

$ gnucap ..... (signs on) gnucap> include models gnucap> list ..... (list of circuit so far) gnucap> spice gnucap-spice>Vin (in 0) sin (freq=60 ampl=170) ac 120 gnucap-spice>X1 (in 0 s1 s2) transformer gnucap-spice>X2 (s1 s2 0 out) bridge gnucap-spice>Rload (out 0) rload gnucap-spice>Cfilter (out 0) cfilter gnucap-spice>.control gnucap>